PAPER

NERA konferens, Turku, Finland, 4 mars 2020.

Bosse Bergstedt, Østfold University College, Norway

What is onto-analyses?

This presentation will try to describe what an onto-analysis is and how it works. It discusses the background of the analysis, key concepts, methodology, and empirically used example.

Theoretical onto-analyses is based on a diffractive reading of Karen Barad's agential realism, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's transcendental empiricism, Michel Serres philosophy, Elisabeth Grosz incorporeal thinking and Donna Haraway's modest witnessing. Methodology onto-analysis work with a research apparatus, based on a haptic optic.

An onto-analysis is a way of thinking about what becomes real. It aims to problematize a perception of reality that is taken for granted. An onto-analysis criticism the view of space and time that characterizes our understanding of reality. What is reality in onto-analyses?

The world is like the waves of the sea, like a constant backdrop of background noise, while being unable to grasp and hold. This world exists everywhere and all the time and contributes to an ever-present diversity. A world that contributes to the emergence of a complex space of non-directional movements, forces, and energies whose effects can never be fully predetermined.

In this days it not so far from a coronavirus, it is a world that created itself through an internal principle, an internal self-differentiation. An expansion and withdrawal at the same time and the same place. The effects of the world's self-differentiation become phenomena's forms, rhythms, energies, cells, viruses, and forces.

It makes the world androgynous, it is the difference in itself, recognition of itself by embracing itself. However, the world cannot see itself as it is its inner principle that cannot observe itself from the outside. The world cannot reflect. (Christensen 2018)

Deleuze and Guattari advocate what they call transcendental empiricism. Everything that emerges in the world does it in the form of something visible and empirical, something that can be observed in some way. At the same time, there is something transcendental, something that cannot be captured. It is this transcendental world that cannot be grasped. On the other hand, it is possible to touch and be touched, respond and participate with this ongoing world. (Deleuze, Guattari 2015)

Similar to Deleuze and Guattari, philosopher Michel Serres says that the world is something in itself, something that can be considered "objective". There is always something "more" that breaks into our way of becoming, which it is necessary to create together with. A form of transcendental objectivity that enables us to function in the same way as all other phenomena and together with them form part of the large complex communication systems that emerge with the worlds in which we live. (Serres 1998)

Let us look at some of the most central concepts for onto-analysis; it is onto-events, onto-noise, onto-lines, onto-cuts, onto-knowledge, and onto-figurations.

Onto-events is a border of events to the unpredictable world but that can make us discover the world. Discovering the moments when the world shows up as an event, a limit, an onto-event. The moment when something unexpected happens that breaks what is taken for granted, which can be, for example, an effect that strikes the body or an unexpected detail that breaks out in a text. When something opens up, a gap, avoid. Examples of onto-events are an accident, natural disaster, or an affected body in love.

Onto-noise is an interface to the world that is chaotic. Michel Serres is described as a "le noice", it can be, for example, a background noise, a noisy noise, chaos. Hear what is being shouted at a football game or a festival concert. The secret lies in this alarm. This chaos sound is primitive as the storm winds of violence have let go.

The noise is a parasite, Serres says, it follows the parasites' logic. It passes and dies away. Nothing has changed. Therefore, background noise in itself has no basis and cannot be attributed to any identity but lies behind and below everything else. Nowhere can we hear the background noise as clearly as at sea, writes Serres, who himself was once a sailor. Here all possibilities are realized at once. (Serres 1998)

Each phenomenon comes into being with the repetition of the world. Which in turn means that the phenomenon will have forms and movements that include differences. It is through these that the phenomenon more or less manages to cope with the relationship with the world. The knowledge that the phenomenon creates to be able to make as differences is what we can call onto-knowledge. Knowledge shares and stabilizes phenomena but knowledge does not sit still. Knowledge comes into being and there is always something no-knowledge in knowledge.

The phenomenon is constantly to the world but also with each other. They are actors who strive for knowledge and meaning, which allows self-organized structures to emerge. Physics Karens Barad points out that phenomena are specific to the circumstances in which they were creating it and where the circumstances are phenomena from previous intra-actions. Intra-actions help create something specific but there is always something that we can’t grab in these relations.

How, then, is it possible to explore these phenomena?

An onto-analysis starts in an interface or boundary event. From there we can make do an onto-cut and follow a phenomenon's formation and movement at what we called for onto-lines. Where these boundary lines lead cannot be said in advance. What characterizes them is that they come into being as an effect of the phenomena becoming with the repetition of the world. Deleuze talks about three forms of boundary lines rigid, molecular and volatile but there are of course many more of them; so many that we can't know them all.

The pattern that these lines create can be embodied in the form of a chart engraving. Where it is a movement that is in focus, a movement that forms a pattern that more or less can be likened to what Deleuze and Guattari called a rhizome.

A figuration that draws attention to a flow that moves in many different directions and thus also to unlimited growth. Unlike the tree as a metaphor, the rhizome has no lifeblood, no roots or synchronous growth. A new rhizome formed in the middle of a tree or as a fold on a branch. This openness means that the rhizome is surrounded by uncertainty because it necessarily contains aspects that at least for a moment are impossible to imagine. (Deleuze and Guattari)

Unlike the map, rhizomes have no beginning or end, but all points can serve as a starting point, it's just about how to orient oneself based on it. From the self-differentiation of the world, there has arisen a fold and a bend that, like a whirl, made it possible for the first phenomena to come into being. Slowly, repetition and folding have been filtered out so that phenomena in Intra-Aktion with other phenomena set themselves in motion and created both forms and forces and energies.

To give one example of one onto-analyses I will now tell you about a museum in Istanbul. With this example, I will show you how bodily emotions and affects interact with matter. To explore this I follow words and things in a novel and at a museum. Orhan Pamuk writes the novel and his museum in Istanbul has the same name as the novel, Museum of Innocence. My reach questions in this study are: How language and other material things can help us to understand how body and matter interconnect. What makes such connections possible? What is the secret of the innocence of objects?

The novel takes place in Istanbul during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Here we meet Kemal Basmaci. Kemal is a well-ordered businessman who has studied in the US. In three weeks, he will be engaged to Sibel. He has gone into a deal to buy her a handbag when he meets the business assistant, the 18-year-old Füsun. A distant poor relative whom he met when he was a child. Now the onto-events happen. Kemal falls in love in Füsun and before the engagement; they spend three passionate weeks in an apartment that Kemal borrowed from her mother. Around them, everyday life in Istanbul is ongoing like an onto-noise in Istanbul, where old traditions change under the pressure of a violent modernization.

Kemal engaged with Sibel and Füsun decides shortly thereafter to end their relationship. She moves with her family to a new house and in the meantime, Kemal's engagement with Sibel was broken. He now begins to search for Füsun and after much searching; he finds her and discovers that she has married. However, he invites and becomes gradually a part of the family and their everyday life. He meets Füsun, her husband and Füsun's mother and father a few days every week. It allows Kemal to be near Füsun in hope that one day she will divorce her husband.

It is during these years that Kemal increasingly begins to collect things and objects. When he visits the family he gradually brings more and more things from the house with him. Everything from hair clips, ornaments, and kitchen things, to the 4213 cigarette smokers that Füsun smoked, touched and left behind. He also saved the earring she wore now he felt the perfect happiness. Among the things is also her floral favorite dress and fragrant soaps.

For eight years, Kemal collects all these things and takes them to his mother's apartment. The house Pamuk later came to buy to convert it into a museum. The Museum of Innocence becomes Kemal's way of preserving its memories and obsession with Füsun. In the museum, these things collected in 83 different wooden boxes, as many as the number of chapters in the novel. Each manifests in different ways Kemal's encounters with Füsun and with Istanbul, from 1950 to 2000. These are clothes, toys, tools, bus and cinema tickets, bankbooks, paintings, photographs, and many other objects. It is possible to see this like a rhizome, with e lot of onto-lines who can connect the 83 different boxes and their material objects in different ways.

It is possible to see Kemal and his collection of things as a process of intra-aktion. However, there is also something more. In Turkish, there is a special word for melancholy " Hüzün". (Pamuk 2012b) There are various ways of interpreting it, but the mystics of Sufism mean that it expresses the mental anxiety or sorrow we feel that we are not close enough to God. At the same time, however, there is an element of happiness in being in the presence of God. Hüzün is a feeling, it considered that it is very important and it is honorable to experience it. For Pamuk, Istanbul embodies that feeling, though without religious signs, a kind of happy, bittersweet sadness. (Pamuk 2006)

This is what Kemal experiences in his relationship with the things that Füsun has touched. Melancholy happiness, of being close but still unable to reach anyway. Something makes it impossible to reach not only with God but also with people and things.

The museum enables entrances to the world or cosmos that, like a substance, exists before and with people, things and nature. (Grosz 2017, Spinoza 1996) A world that temporarily manifests itself in different ways, here as an affection of love. An unplanned, temporary event that breaks through the well-known and conscious. Something that can lead to the discovery that also objects just like humans are something more than objects to be controlled. The world is inherent in matter and matter in the world.

Kemal has experienced a passionate affection for love and at the same time suffered from losing it. It has caused him to discover a sense of Hüzün, he feels that he is not close enough to Fusun but at the same time, he feel an element of happiness in being close to Füsun and to things that she had tough. Hüzün, at the same time, is a word not far from Füsun.

Kemal's experience of physical and spiritual moments means that he discovers that things carry, not only memory but also a secret, they are something "more" than they appear to be. (Massumi 2002) Over time, he becomes increasingly obsessed with collecting things, even after Füsun's death. He continues to visit museums all around the world. On Füsun's birthday on April 12, 2007, Kemal dies of a heart attack at a hotel in Paris.

The world comes into being at every moment and through its self-differentiation. (Deleuze, Guattari 2015) This constantly repeated in everything that comes into being. The world is in itself and cannot be captured or embraced by anything else. Therefore, phenomena must be in the world and at the same time be in distance of it. Things can only come in touch with the word in moments. (Barad 2007)

On the other side, things are not separate objects, they communicate with each other, and they create relationships and interconnections. (Barad 2007) Items that put together in new ways show something that has not been visible before. It is possible because the world touched things and things touched the world. Similar to when Kemel once touched by Füsun.

Karen Barad concept of "touch" as she describes the phenomenon's relationship with the world. To 'touch' is to "already be in touch".[3] Touching and being touched is something that is constantly going on and it did with the help of our thoughts, minds, and body. We are already in the world that constantly repeats itself. It is when we touch and are touched by the world that we discover how it contributes to our and others' future.

Kemal guided by Füsun touches on the relations with things. He discovers how subjects and objects share the world that precedes them. The moments that connect tings are innocent but they at the same time produce something that can release a sense of Hüzün. Things are no longer objects at a distance they are living phenomena that become phenomena together with subjects. It is possible to touch words and things in a way that comes near the world, and that is what we can call Hüzün.

The boundary between fiction and reality is becoming blurred and the power of imagination increasingly alive at the Museum of Innocence. We can see the museum-like an onto-figuration which makes it possible to release feelings of both missing and joy. Missed because the world cannot be caught, the joy of joining everything else that is emerging in the world. The innocent objects allows the viewer to discover what goes beyond the mirror surface. The thing as a bearer of the world as something that cannot discover without at the same time feeling both joy and sorrow.

References

Aristoteles, (2017) Fysik, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Thales

Barad, Karen (2007) Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Bennett, Jane, (2010) Vibrant Matter, A Political Ecology of Things, Duke University Press

Bohr, Niels (2013). Filosofiska skrifter: Bind I–III, Aarhus: Forlaget Philosophia.

Christensen, Inger, (2018), Verden ønsker at se sig selv, København: Gyldendal.

Deleuze, Gilles & Guattari, Félix (2015). Tusen platåer. Hägersten: Tankekraft.

Grosz, Elizabeth, (2017) The Incorporeal. Ontology, Ethics and the Limits of Materialism, Colombia University Press

Haraway, Donna, (2016) Staying with the Trouble, Duke University Press

Juelskjær, Malou (2019) At tænke med agential realisme, København: Samfundslitteratur.

Massumi, Brian (2002). Parables for the virtual: Movement, affect, sensation. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Pamuk, Orhan (2012a) Uskyldens Museum, Köpenhamn: Gyldendal

Pamuk, Orhan (2012b) Orhan Pamuk. The innocence of objects, New York: Abrams

Pamuk, Orhan (2006) Istanbul – minnen av en stad, Stockolm: Norstedts.

Serees, Michel, (1998) Genese, København: Gyldendal.

Spindler, Fredrika (2009) Spinoza: multitud, affekt, kraft, Göteborg: Glänta.

Spinoza, Benedict de, (1996) Ethics, London: Penguin.


Abstract

Pedagogies in the Wild – Entanglements between Deleuzoguattarian Philosophy and the New Materialisms (2020)

Bosse Bergstedt, Østfold University College, Norway

When the world calls for knowledge

This article is based on the fact that when phenomena create knowledge, at the same time the world expresses itself. A wild pedagogy will be based on an ontology where the world is like the eye that cannot see its own retina. The world becomes itself (Deleuze, Guattari 2015) at the same time that it evokes knowledge, ontology, and epistemology are thus interconnected (Spinoza 1996, Barad 2007, Braidotti 2013, Haraway 2016, Grosz 2017, Juleskjær 2019 and others). Phenomenon with there language is part of the world so when the phenomenon expresses themself, the world also expresses itself. (Christensen 2000, 2018)

The article aims to show how the world expresses itself through a variety of phenomena, which are created as forms and movements in an intriguing complexity. The research question explores how the phenomenon comes into being at the same time as the world is expressing itself. How do knowledge and learning form a part of the process in which the world expresses itself through phenomena?

The article tries to show this with introduces an onto-analysis. It will discuss the background of the analysis, key concepts, methodology, and empirically used example. Theoretical onto-analyses is based on a diffractive reading of Karen Barad's agential realism, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's transcendental empiricism, Michel Serres philology, Elisabeth Grosz incorporeal thinking and Donna Haraway's modest witnessing.

The world is like the waves of the sea, like a constant backdrop of background noise, while being unable to grasp and hold. (Serres 1998) This world exists everywhere and all the time and contributes through its presence to what may appear to be one becomes two in an ever-present diversity. A world that contributes to the emergence of a complex space of non-directional movements, forces, and energies whose effects can never be fully predetermined.

It is a world that created itself through an internal principle, an internal self-differentiation. It makes the world androgynous, it is the difference in itself, recognition of itself by embracing itself. (Deleuze, Guattari 2015) An expansion and withdrawal at the same time and at the same place. This constantly repeated in everything that comes into being. However, the world cannot see itself as it is its own inner principle that cannot observe itself from the outside. The world cannot reflect but the effects of the world's self-differentiation become phenomena's forms, rhythms, energies, cells, viruses, and forces. (Bohr 2013, Barad 2007, Grosz 2017)

Deleuze and Guattari advocate what they call transcendental empiricism, where what is created in reality is constituted and conditioned by a field that is built up afterward. An immanent plane, which is neither merely given nor something merely transcendental and transcendental. Nothing is hidden, there is no God or anything in advance given a unified phenomenon like nature, man or consciousness. (Deleuze, Guattari 2015)

Rather, it is that the immanent plane emerges from what can be perceived as chaos in the form of a non-directed and constantly repeated world. A part of this chaos consists of a number of phenomena. Everything that emerges in the world does it in the form of something visible and empirical, something that can be observed in some way. At the same time, there is something that is transcendental, something that cannot be captured. It is this transcendental world that cannot be grasped. On the other hand, it is possible to touch and be touched, respond and participate in this ongoing world. (Deleuze, Guattari 2015)

Similar to Deleuze and Guattari, Michel Serres sees the transcendental as something in himself, something that can be considered "objective" in the midst of what appears and can be observed. (Serres 1998) There is always something "more" that breaks into our way of becoming, which it is necessary to create together with. A form of transcendental objectivity that enables man to function in the same way as all other phenomena and together with them form part of the large complex communication systems that emerge as the worlds in which we live.

From this discussion of ontology, this article presents the most central concepts for an onto-analysis is onto-events, onto-noise, onto-lines, onto-cuts, onto-knowledge, and onto-figurations.

The article's examples are based on too selected experimental pedagogical situations, affected bodies and material at the author Orhan Pamuk's Museum of Innocense in Istanbul (Pamuk 2012 ) and the world's desire to see itself in Inger Christensen's poetic language (Christensen       2000, 2018)

The onto-analytic research apparatus works with a haptic optics, focusing partly on the formation of phenomena and partly on the movements of the phenomena. The world expresses itself in different ways, including unexpected events. Here, inspiration is drawn from Niels Bohr's discoveries in quantum physics (Bohr 2013, Barad 2007) In the analysis, one of the focus is on how intra-aktion created phenomena and how phenomena created intra-aktion. (Barad 2007, Juleskjær 2019)

The observations start in the middle of the phenomenon in order to be able to follow the phenomena 's relations with the world in an ever-repeated repetition. It will be described as a rhizome in the form of manifold complexity, a boundless system that is self-organizing and collectively producing. (Deleuze, Guattari 2015, Haraway 2016) When movements and shapes are brought together in a rhizome, it becomes a mess of lines and formations. The purpose of rhizomes as a figure is to make visible how phenomena produce knowledge and learning while contributing to the expression of the world. This will give a figuration of how a wild pedagogy can work.

Paper 

10th Annual New Materialism Conference, Cape Town, December 2019

Bosse Bergstedt, University Collegeof Østfold, bosse.bergstedt@hiof.no

The innocence of objects

Intro

This paper produced at the same time as I worked on trying to develop a philosophical analysis that I came to call onto-analysis. An analysis inspired by reading Barad, Haraway, Deleuze, Serres, and others.

In this paper, I try to focus on how bodily emotions and affects interact with matter. To explore this I follow words and things in a novel and at a museum. How language and other material things can help us to understand how body and matter interconnect. What makes such connections possible? What is the secret of the innocence of objects?

The first part of the paper shows how subjects and objects become phenomena in the Turkish author Orhan Pamuk's novel The Museum of Innocense. The second part of the paper shows how objects get new significance when separated from the symbolic story and take part in a museum with the same name as the novel. The third part discusses what we can learn when we read the novel and the museum together.

Kemal falls in love with Füsun

The novel takes place in Istanbul during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Here we meet Kemal Basmaci. Kemal is a well-ordered businessman who has studied in the US. In three weeks, he will be engaged to Sibel. He has gone into a deal to buy her a handbag when he meets the business assistant, the 18-year-old Füsun. A distant poor relative whom he met when he was a child. Kemal falls in love in Füsun and before the engagement; they spend three passionate weeks in an apartment that Kemal borrowed from her mother. It all takes place in a Turkey where old traditions change under the pressure of a violent modernization.

Kemal engaged with Sibel and Füsun decides shortly thereafter to end their relationship. She moves with her family to a new house and in the meantime, Kemal's engagement with Sibel was broken. He now begins to search for Füsun and after much searching; he finds her and discovers that she has married. However, he invites to the family and gradually becomes part of everyday life with Füsun, her husband and Füsun's mother and father. It allows Kemal to be near Füsun in hope that one day she will divorce her husband.

It is during these years that Kemal increasingly begins to collect things and objects. He visits the family three times a week and gradually brings more and more things from the house with him. Everything from hair clips, ornaments, and kitchen things, to the 4213 cigarette smokers that Füsun smoked, touched and left behind. He also saved the earring she wore now he felt the perfect happiness. Among the things is also her floral favorite dress and fragrant soaps.

For eight years, Kemal collects all these things and takes them to his mother's apartment. The house Pamuk later came to buy to convert it into a museum. The Museum of Innocence becomes Kemal's way of preserving its memories and obsession with Füsun. In the museum, these things collected in 83 different wooden boxes, as many as the number of chapters in the novel. Each manifests in different ways Kemal's encounters with Füsun and with Istanbul, from 1950 to 2000. These are clothes, toys, tools, bus and cinema tickets, bankbooks, paintings, photographs, and many other objects.

A melancholy happiness

In Turkish, there is a special word for melancholy " Hüzün". (Pamuk 2012b) There are various ways of interpreting it, but the mystics of Sufism mean that it expresses the mental anxiety or sorrow we feel that we are not close enough to God. At the same time, however, there is an element of happiness in being in the presence of God. Hüzün is a feeling, it considered that it is very important and it is honorable to experience it. For Pamuk, Istanbul embodies that feeling, though without religious signs, a kind of happy, bittersweet sadness. (Pamuk 2006)

Is this what Kemal experiences in his relationship with the things that Füsun has touched? A melancholy happiness, of being close but still unable to reach anyway. Something makes it impossible to reach not only with God but also with people and things.

Where does this sense of melancholic happiness come from? How is it possible that proximity and distance can exist at the same time? Kemal and Füsun's love story has shown something. The passionate affection of love often comes unexpectedly and unplanned. In a moment of affection, Kemal seemed too united with something larger than he is. This experience Kemal cannot let go, he is obsessed with holding on to it but can no longer reach it. The closest he can get to Füsun is to be close to her when he visits her family and to collect the things that she has touched and been touched by.

In the end, Kemal manages to find his way back to Füsun, very briefly, before death catches them up and he can continue with his collection of things and objects. It is now, after some years he meets the author Pamuk and tells his entire story to him. Pamuk listens to Kemal's story and ends it as Kemal wants with the words "Let everyone know that I have lived a very happy life".

Object is something more

The museum enables entrances to the world or cosmos that, like a substance, exists before and with people, things and nature. (Grosz 2017, Spinoza 1996) A world that temporarily manifests itself in different ways, here as an affection of love. An unplanned, temporary event that breaks through the well-known and conscious. Something that can lead to the discovery that also objects just like humans are something more than objects to be controlled. The world is inherent in matter and matter in the world.[1]

Kemal's experience of physical and spiritual moments means that he discovers that things carry, not only memory but also a secret, they are something "more" than they appear to be. (Massumi 2002) Over time, he becomes increasingly obsessed with collecting things, even after Füsun's death. He continues to visit museums all around the world. On Füsun's birthday on April 12, 2007, Kemal dies of a heart attack at a hotel in Paris.

Kemal has experienced a passionate affection for love and at the same time suffered from losing it. It has caused him to discover a sense of Hüzün, he feels that he is not close enough to Fusun but at the same time, he feel an element of happiness in being close to Füsun and to things that she had tough. Hüzün, at the same time, is a word not far from Füsun.

Time turning into Space

Of all the things Kemal gathered, the cigarette smokers reminded him of what Aristotle calls "a moment" (Aristoteles, 2017). Aristotle separated time and the occasional moments that experienced as "present". The moment when the things revealed in the form that the world touches and is touched. From these movements' things and language becoming and stabilized, as form and structure.

The museum, therefore, can said to have two purposes, partly to tell stories about objects and partly to point out their timeless innocence movements. From the top floor of the museum, you can see down through an opening to the ground floor, where down on the floor is a spiral. It shows how time ties the museum's different moments together into a story, not as a line but as a spiral. Kemal's greatest happiness was if the museum could contribute to "see Time turning into Space".[2]

The museum shows how a constant connection between bodies and matter is ongoing. How unplanned and temporary affects can lead to the discovery that everything is somehow connected. Füsun's touch of matter and Kemal's collection. Without the constant repetition of the world, phenomena could not come into being or interconnect. It is possible to connect, moments turn into accumulations, but at the same time, it is never possible to reach all the way, neither to operate inside or to the thing itself. The world turns aside and stay in itself.

It is possible to see the 83 boxes in the Museum of Innocent as entrances to the world that is common for both subject and object. That all phenomena in their becoming relate to the world. A well-preserved secret in both subjects and objects and which is possible to discover now when the world shows up and breaks through our forgettable taken about what is real.

Feelings of both missing and joy

The world comes into being at every moment and through its self-differentiation. (Deleuze, Guattari 2015) This constantly repeated in everything that comes into being. The world is in itself and cannot be captured or embraced by anything else. Therefore, phenomena must be in the world and at the same time be in distance of it. Things can only come in touch with the word in moments. (Barad 2007)

On the other side, things are not separate objects, they communicate with each other, and they create relationships and interconnections. (Barad 2007) Items that put together in new ways show something that has not been visible before. It is possible because the world touched things and things touched the world. Similar to when Kemel once touched by Füsun.

Karen Barad concept of "touch" as she describes the phenomenon's relationship with the world. To 'touch' is to "already be in touch".[3] Touching and being touched is something that is constantly going on and it did with the help of our thoughts, minds, and body. We are already in the world that constantly repeats itself. It is when we touch and are touched by the world that we discover how it contributes to our and others' future.

Kemal guided by Füsun touches on the relations with things. He discovers how subjects and objects share the world that precedes them. The moments that connect tings are innocent but they at the same time produce something that can release a sense of Hüzün. Things are no longer objects at a distance they are living phenomena that become phenomena together with subjects. It is possible to touch words and things in a way that comes near the world, and that is what we can call Hüzün.

The boundary between fiction and reality is becoming blurred and the power of imagination increasingly alive at the Museum of Innocence. Which makes it possible to release feelings of both missing and joy. Missed because the world cannot be caught, the joy of joining everything else that is emerging in the world. The innocent objects allows the viewer to discover what goes beyond the mirror surface. The thing as bearer of the world as something that cannot discover without at the same time feeling both joy and sorrow. We must humbly submit to this discovery, for this love, language, and matter helps us.

References

Aristoteles, (2017) Fysik, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Thales

Barad, Karen (2007) Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Bennett, Jane, (2010) Vibrant Matter, A Political Ecology of Things, Duke University Press

Bohr, Niels (2013). Filosofiska skrifter: Bind I–III, Aarhus: Forlaget Philosophia.

Deleuze, Gilles & Guattari, Félix (2015). Tusen platåer. Hägersten: Tankekraft.

Grosz, Elizabeth, (2017) The Incorporeal. Ontology, Ethics and the Limits of Materialism, Colombia University Press

Haraway, Donna, (2016) Staying with the Trouble, Duke University Press

Juelskjær, Malou (2019) At tænke med agential realisme, København: Samfundslitteratur.

Massumi, Brian (2002). Parables for the virtual: Movement, affect, sensation. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Pamuk, Orhan (2012a) Uskyldens Museum, Köpenhamn: Gyldendal

Pamuk, Orhan (2012b) Orhan Pamuk. The innocence of objects, New York: Abrams

Pamuk, Orhan (2006) Istanbul – minnen av en stad, Stockolm: Norstedts.

Spindler, Fredrika (2009) Spinoza: multitud, affekt, kraft, Göteborg: Glänta.

Spinoza, Benedict de, (1996) Ethics, London: Penguin.

 

[1] Inspired by Elisabeth Grosz's book The Incorporal, I have linked Pamuk's notion of innocence to what Grosz describes as a transcendental substance, which lacks material existence and physical properties. A substance that is repetitively repeated, cannot be held and cannot see itself, which means that it could be regarded as innocent.

[2] Karen Barad, with inspiration from quantum physicist Niels Bohr, created the concept of "space-time maturation", which aims at the fact that time and space are not linear or delimited processes, but on the contrary something that is created unpredictably, see Karen Barad, Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning, 2007

[3] Karen Barad, "On touching – The inhuman that therefore I am differences" In A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 23(3), 206–23

Paper

INTRA konferens, Vandalorum, Värnamo, september 2019.

Bosse Bergstedt, Høgskolen i Østfold, Norge

The innocence of objects

 I Istanbul har den turkiska författaren Orhan Pamuk öppnat ett museum som heter The Museum of Innocense. Ett museum som bygger på hans roman med samma namn. Handlingen utspelar sig i Istanbul under slutet av 1970-talet och början på 1980-talet. Här möter vi Kemal Basmaci. 

 Kemal är en välbeställd affärsman som studerat i USA och som om tre veckor skall förlova sig med Sibel. Han har gått i en affär för att köpa henne en handväska när han möter affärsbiträdet18-åriga Füsun En avlägsen fattig släktning som han träffat en del när han var barn. Kemal förälskar sig våldsamt i Füsun och före förlovningen tillbringar de tre passionerade veckor i en lägenhet som Kemal fått låna av sin mor. Samtidigt som förberedelserna pågår för Kemals förlovning, har han dessa passionerade möten med Füsun. Det hela utspelar sig i ett Turkiet där gamla traditioner förändras under trycket av en våldsam modernisering.

Kemal förlovar sig med Sibel och Füsun bestämmer sig kort där efter för att avsluta deras relation. Hon flyttar med sin familj till ett nytt hus och under tiden så bryts också Kemals förlovning med Sibel. Han börjar nu att söka efter Fusun och efter mycket letande, finner han henne och upptäcker att hon har gift sig. Han bjuds in till familjen och blir efterhand en del av vardagen tillsammans med Füsun, hennes man och Füsuns mor och far. Det ger Kemal möjlighet att vara näraFüsun i hopp om att hon en dag kommer att skilja sig från sin man.

Det är under dessa år som Kemal allt mer börjar att samlar på ting och föremål. Han besöker familjen ett par, tre gånger i veckan och tar efterhand med sig allt fler av de ting som finns i deras hem. Allt från hårspännen, prydnadsföremål och köksredskap, till de 4213 cigarettfimpar som Füsun rökt, berört och lämnat efter sig. Han har också sparat på det örhänge som hon hade på sig i det ögonblick då han kände den mest fullkomna lyckan. Bland tingen finns också hennes blommiga favoritklänning och väldoftande tvålar. 

Kemal samlar under åtta års tid, alla dessa ting och tar dem till sin mors lägenhet. I det hus som Pamuk senare kom att köpa för att bygga om det till ett museum. Oskuldens museum blir Kemals sätt att bevara sina minnen och besatthet av Füsun. I museet finns dessa ting samlade i 83 olika träboxar, lika många som antalet kapitel i romanen. Vart och ett gestaltar på skilda sätt Kemals möten med Füsun och med det Istanbul som blev till från 1950 till år 2000. Det är kläder, leksaker, redskap, buss- och biografbiljetter, bankböcker, målningar, fotografier och många andra föremål.

Vad är det då detta museum visar? En ledtråd kan vara att se närmare på box 54. Här finns många klockor och boxen har fått namnet Time. Här finns också en text som hänvisar till Aristoteles syn på tiden. Aristoteles skiljer på tid och de enstaka ögonblick som beskrivs som ”närvarande”. På liknande sätt som hans syn på atomer ses dessa ögonblick som odelade, obrytbara enheter. Tid är däremot det som binder dem samman.

Att minnas tid är för de flesta rätt plågsamt men om vi kan stoppa tänkandet om livet som en linje och istället värdera vår tid för dess djupaste ögonblick, då blir en linje på åtta år för Kemal lika med 1, 593 lyckliga nätter vid Füsun sida. Det var för att bevara dessa lyckliga ögonblick för framtiden som Kemal samlade denna mångfald av ting, stora och små, som alla kände till Füsun beröring och daterade var och en av dem för att kunna behålla dem i sitt minne.

Av alla ting som Kemal samlade var det cigarettfimparna det som enligt honom själv mest påminde om Aristoteles ögonblick. Ögonblick som flöt samman till en oavbruten ström av tid. Tid uppstår när individuella ögonblick drar ihop sig i sig själva och när objekt gör det samma förlorar de sina berättelser. Det är vid dessa tillfällen som tingens oskuld uppenbaras. Museet kan därför sägas ha två delvis motsatta syften, dels att berätta historier om föremål och dels demonstrera deras tidlösa oskuld. Från översta våningen i museet går det att se ned genom en öppning till bottenvåningen, där nere på golvet finns en spiral. Den visa hur tid knyter samman museets olika ögonblick till en berättelse, inte som en linje men som en spiral. Kemal största lycka var om museet kunde bidra till att ”see Time turning into Space”.

Muséet visar hur det ständigt pågår ett sammankopplande mellan kroppar och materia. Hur oplanerade och tillfälliga affekter kan leda till upptäckten av att allt på ett eller annat sätt hör ihop.  Füsun beröring av materian och Kemals samlande. Det är möjligt att koppla samman men det går samtidigt inte att nå ända fram, varken till människan inre eller till tinget i sig.

På turkiska finns ett speciellt ord för melankoli ”Huzun”. Det finns olika sätt att tolka det på men mystikerna inom sufismen menar att det uttrycker den själsliga ångest eller sorg vi känner för att vi inte befinner oss tillräckligt nära Gud. Samtidigt finns det ändå ett element av lycka över att finnas i Guds närhet. Huzun är en känsla som anses mycket viktig och det är hedrande att få uppleva den. För Pamuk förkroppsligar Istanbul den känslan, fast utan religiösa förtecken, ett slags lycklig, bitterljuvt vemod. Är det den som Kemal upplever i sin relation till Füsun och de ting som hon har berört? En melankolisk lycka, av att vara nära men ändå inte kunna nå ändå fram. Det finns något som gör att det inte går att nå ända fram trots att människor och ting kopplar samman och ömsesidigt genomtränger varandra.

Varifrån kommer denna känsla av melankolisk lycka? Hur är det möjligt att närhet och avstånd kan finnas på samma gång? Kemal och Füsun omöjliga kärlekshistoria är dömd på förhand men deras förälskelse har visat något. Den passionerade affekt som en förälskelse är kommer ofta oväntat och oplanerat, som om det är någon som vill visa de förälskade något. I ett ögonblick av affekt tycktes det Kemal som om de var förenade med något som var större än de själva. Denna upplevelse kan Kemal inte släppa, han är besatt av att hålla fast i den men kan inte längre nå fram till den. Det närmaste han kan komma Füsun är att få vara nära henne när han besöker hennes familj och att få samla på de ting som hon har berört och blivit berörd av.

Till slut lyckas det för Kemal att finna tillbaka till Füsun, mycket kort, innan döden hinner ikapp dem och han på egen hand får fortsätta med sitt samlade av ting och föremål. Det är nu han träffar författaren Pamuk och berättar hela sin historia för honom. Pamuk lyssnar till Kemals berättelse och avslutar den också så som Kemal vill med orden ”Låt alla veta att jag levt ett mycket lyckligt liv”.

Museet möjliggör ingångar till den värld eller det kosmos som likt en substans finns före och med människor, ting och natur. En värld som tillfälligt visar sig på olika sätt, här som en affekt av förälskelse. En oplanerad, tillfällig händelse som bryter igenom det välkända och medvetna. Något som kan leda till upptäckten av att också föremål precis som människor är något mer än objekt som skall kontrolleras och styras. Världen är inneboende i materian och materian i världen och det är världen som tillfälligt visar sig i affekter och oplanerade händelser.

Kemal upplevelse av kroppsliga och andliga ögonblick gör att han upptäcker att tingen bär på, inte bara minne men också en hemlighet, de är något ”mer” än de ser ut att vara. Han blir med tiden allt mer besatt av att samlande ting och fortsätter efter Füsun död med att besöka museer runt om i världen. På Füsun födelsedag den 12 april 2007 dör Kemal av en hjärtattack på ett hotell i Paris.

Tingen är inte längre objekt på avstånd de är levande fenomen som det gäller att vara uppriktig i relation med. Konstnären Vincent van Gogh beskriver hur det är uppriktigheten i känslan som är det viktiga i hans målande.

”Är det inte sinnesrörelsen, uppriktigheten i vår känsla för naturen, som är avgörande? Och dessa känslor är ofta så starka, att man arbetar utan att märka det. Ibland kommer penseldragen slag i slag, de följer varandra som orden i ett samtal eller i ett brev, först när vi har forcerat arbetet till det yttersta först då har jag en känsla av livet”

 Kemal har upplevt en passionerad affekt och samtidigt en förlust. Det har fått honom att upptäcka en känsla av Huzun, en melankolisk själslig ångest eller sorg av att vi inte befinna sig tillräckligt nära Gud eller om vi så vill tillräckligt nära världen eller kosmos. Samtidigt som detta ger ett element av lycka över att ändå finnas i Guds eller världens närhet. Huzun, är samtidigt ett ord som inte är långt från Füsun.

Det går att se de 83 boxarna i Oskuldens museum som möjliga ingångar till den världen som är med till att kalla fram både människa och föremål. Hur alla fenomen i sitt blivande förhåller sig till världen och blir till med världen utan att de någonsin helt och fullt lyckas med att greppa den. En hemlighet som finns väl bevarad hos både människa och ting och som är möjligt att upptäcka i de ögonblick när världen visar sig och bryter igenom våra förgivet tagna bilder och berättelser om vad som är verkligt.

Tingen är inte avgränsade objekt, de kommunicerar med varandra, de skapar relationer och sammankopplingar. När föremål sätts samman visar sig sådant som tidigare inte varit synligt. Samtidigt finns det hos varje ting något oskuldsfullt som hänvisar till den värld som inte går att greppa. Den värld som visar sig som affekter hos människor, visar sig på liknande sätt som oplanerade och tillfälliga detaljer hos föremål. Sprickor och mellanrum som visar att det finns något ”mer” hos tingen. Här finns öppningar hos föremål till den värld som är dess oskuld, till de ögonblick när tingen är bortom tiden och blir berörda och berörs av världen. Den värld som är inneboende hos tinget och de ting som samtidigt är inneboende i världen.

Aristoteles menade att det gällde att skilja på tid och de enstaka ögonblick som kan upplevas som ”närvarande”. Det är en insiktsfull tanke men jag är inte helt säker på att han hade rätt i att det är frågan om ögonblick som odelade och obrytbara enheter. Den värld som ständigt upprepas i varje ögonblick gör det därför att den är självdifferentierad. A som icke-A och A samtidigt. Det gör att världen är androgynt, det är skillnaden i sig själv, ett erkännande av sig själv genom att omfamna sig själv. Världen möjliggör att fenomen och tid blir till genom en utvidgning och tillbakadragning på samma gång och på samma ställe.

Gränsen mellan fiktion och verklighet blir allt suddigare och fantasins kraft allt mer levande. på Oskuldens museum. Vilket möjliggör att det frigörs känslor av både saknad och glädje. Saknad över att världen inte går att fånga, glädjen över att bli till med allt annat som träder fram i världen. Det finns något mer hos tingen, det oskuldsfulla ger betraktaren en möjlighet att upptäcka det som går bortom den speglande ytan. De oskuldsfulla hos tingen, där varken objekt eller subjekt finns. Tingen som bärare av världen som något som inte går att upptäcka utan att samtidigt känna både glädje och sorg. Vi måste ödmjukt överlämna oss till denna upptäckt, med det hjälper oss kärleken, språket och materian.

Litteratur 

Aristoteles, (2017) Fysik, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Thales

Barad, Karen (2007) Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Bohr, Niels (2013). Filosofiska skrifter: Bind I–III, Aarhus: Forlaget Philosophia.

Deleuze, Gilles & Guattari, Félix (2015). Tusen platåer. Hägersten: Tankekraft.

Massumi, Brian (2002). Parables for the virtual: Movement, affect, sensation. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Pamuk, Orhan (2012) Uskyldens Museum, Köpenhamn: GyldendalPamuk, Orhan (2012) Orhan Pamuk. The innocence of objects, New York: Abrams

Spindler, Fredrika (2009) Spinoza : multitud, affekt, kraft, Göteborg: Glänta.

 
Copyright Bosse Bergstedt